Eventually including all of the Maghrib except Morocco, the Ottoman Empire began with the takeover of Algiers in 1516 by the Ottoman Turkish corsair and beylerbey Oruç Reis. Background  This activity had a profound effect on future relations between the French occupiers and the natives. During his second term as governor general (1835–36), he used his office to make private investments in land and encouraged army officers and bureaucrats in his administration to do the same. The superior of a religious brotherhood, Muhyi ad Din, who had spent time in Ottoman jails for opposing the bey's rule, launched attacks against the French and their makhzen allies at Oran in 1832. Glima – The Nordic Martial Art Practiced by the Vikings. But is this really true? The same day a few hundred Kabyles tried to ambush the French army but were easily defeated by them. The French then determined that more forceful action was required. Deval's nephew Alexandre, the consul in Bône, further angered the dey by fortifying French storehouses in Bône and La Calle against the terms of prior agreements.. In 1834 he concluded a treaty with General Desmichels, who was then military commander of the province of Oran. As head of state, he led the local population in a fierce resistance to the French occupation forces. Hardly had the news of the capture of Algiers reached Paris than Charles X was deposed during the Three Glorious Days of July 1830, and his cousin Louis-Philippe, the "citizen king", was named to preside over a constitutional monarchy.  The expulsion of the Turks created a power vacuum in significant parts of the territory, from which resistance to French occupation immediately arose. After a stubborn struggle, the French government concluded a peace with him on February 26, 1834, in which he was recognized as domination over all Arab tribes from the West to the River Shelif. This convinced King Charles X that forceful action was required to settle the matter. , In 1795–96, the French Republic contracted to purchase wheat for the French army from two Jewish merchants in Algiers. To face the French, the dey sent 7,000 janissaries, 19,000 troops from the beys of Constantine and Oran, and about 17,000 Kabyles. At the same time, Byuzho sought to establish French supremacy inside the country, and his successors, Bedo and the Duke of Omal (from 1847), held the same policy. The Kabyles suffered considerable losses. Deval's nephew Alexandre, the consul in Bône, further angered the dey by fortifying French storehouses in Bône and La Calle despite prior agreements. Already in May 1841, the French seized Tekedempt, the fortified seat of the Emir, and Maskara. Following a plan for the invasion of Algeria originally developed under Napoleon in 1808, General de Bourmont then landed 34,000 soldiers 27 kilometres (17 mi) west of Algiers, at Sidi Ferruch, on 14 June 1830. It is followed by the genocide of between 500,000 and 1 million Algerians by the French forces, which destroyed one third of the population. The two forces clashed in a bloody but inconclusive engagement near the Sig River.
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