Dutch Republic (until 1795) Ultimately, Royalist exhaustion and growing political maturity amongst the new states resulted in the creation of a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south to Mexico in the north. Utilizing the name of Abraham Lincoln, the communist supporting men from the US formed the Lincoln Battalion, organized in January 1937 as part of the XV International Brigade.  The government refused to allow arms shipments and sent warships to try to stop shipments.  Shopkeepers and industrialists were shot if they did not sympathise with the Republicans, and were usually spared if they did. The Napoleonic Wars were to have a tremendous impact on Spanish military history, both within Spain itself and across her American colonies.  Mola began serious planning in the spring. Stanley G. Payne reduced his earlier estimate of 465,000 (at most 300,000 "violent deaths" with 165,000 deaths from malnutrition which "must be added", Payne (1987), p. 220) to 344,000 (also "violent deaths" and malnutrition victims, Payne (2012), p. 245); Hugh Thomas in.  Landowners taunted workers by saying that if they went hungry, they should "Go eat Republic!  According to Basque sources, some 22,000 Basques were murdered by Nationalists immediately after the Civil War.  The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including CEDA, monarchists, including both the opposing Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, and the Falange Española de las JONS, a fascist political party. Francisco Largo Caballero declared that "the organized proletariat will carry everything before it and destroy everything until we reach our goal". The figure they arrive at for the 1936–1939 period is 346,000; the figure for 1936–1942, including the years of postwar deaths resulting from terror and war sufferings, is 540,000. Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 76; slightly different figures, 344,000 and 558,000, in earlier study completed using the same method, see Diez Nicolas (1985), p. 48. only those who did not return to Spain, Payne (1987), p. 220. , With his ranks swelled by Italian troops and Spanish colonial soldiers from Morocco, Franco made another attempt to capture Madrid in January and February 1937, but was again unsuccessful.
145,000 KIA, 134,000 executed, 630,000 due to sickness, cold etc.. maximum considered estimate, Griffin, Julia Ortiz, Griffin, William D. (2007). , Just a few days before the end of the Spanish Civil War, on 17 March 1939, Portugal and Spain signed the Iberian Pact, a non-aggression treaty that marked the beginning of a new phase in Iberian relations. In the post-war period, Spain was initially still heavily influenced by events in North Africa, particularly surrounding its colony of Western Sahara The first of these conflicts, the Ifni War (1956–1958) saw Spanish forces, including Spain's first paratroop unit, clash with the Moroccan Liberation Army, a Moroccan state backed insurgency movement. Ruiz, Julius.  Although the nationalist generals were already planning an uprising, the event was a catalyst and a public justification for a coup. The Spanish Air Force received its first American jets, such as the F-86 Sabre and Lockheed T-33, from America, whilst the equipment of the Spanish military was again modernised in the 1970s to prepare for Spain's membership of NATO in 1982.  In this respect, the war was an indicator of the growing instability across Europe. A smaller percentage of domestic resources came from expropriations, donations or internal borrowing.  The Nationalist side conducted aerial bombing of cities in Republican territory, carried out mainly by the Luftwaffe volunteers of the Condor Legion and the Italian air force volunteers of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie – the most notorious example of this tactic of terror bombings was the bombing of Guernica. In the middle of the century, Spain developed the galleon for naval warfare, using them in convoys to link her possessions in the Philippines, the Americas and Europe. Basque nationalists, heralded by the conservative Basque Nationalist Party, were mildly supportive of the Republican government, although some in Navarre sided with the uprising for the same reasons influencing conservative Catalans. , Recent research has started to locate mass graves, using a combination of witness testimony, remote sensing and forensic geophysics techniques..
including war-related executions until 1961, death above average due to illness etc., Salas Larrazabal, Ramón (1977). The Spanish Legion committed atrocities and the army carried out summary executions of leftists. During the war, the Spanish army transformed its organization and tactics, evolving from a primarily pike and halberd wielding force into the first pike and shot formation of arquebusiers and pikemen, known as the colunella.  Two days after relieving the siege, Franco proclaimed himself Caudillo ("chieftain", the Spanish equivalent of the Italian Duce and the German Führer—meaning: 'director') while forcibly unifying the various and diverse Falangist, Royalist and other elements within the Nationalist cause. Payment for the war on both sides was very high. In the second half of the century, a much reduced and increasingly neglected Spanish army became infamous for being poorly equipped and rarely paid. As the Visigothic kingdom expanded into Iberia, expelling the Vandals and Alans, the Suevi expanded their own realm as far south as Mérida. , The Battle of Teruel was an important confrontation. Republic of Venice The first half of the 6th century was largely a failure for the Visigoths.  The total number of Spaniards serving in the Nationalist units is estimated at "nearly 1 million men", though earlier works claimed a total of 1.26 million Nationalists (including non-Spaniards).. It decided to raise an international brigade of 5,000 men and a fund of 1 billion francs. , The Moroccan Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas joined the rebellion and played a significant role in the civil war. Consequently, the Nationalists called Lisbon "the port of Castile".  Mola was chief planner and second in command. None of the sides resolved to public borrowing and none floated debt on foreign exchange markets. Castile, a medium-sized kingdom with a strong maritime tradition, was plunged into civil war following the death of Alfonso XI in 1349; the conflict between Pedro of Castile and Henry II of Castile became bound up with the wider politics of the Hundred Years' War. Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union signed on officially, but ignored the embargo. Spain fought the Castilian War against the Bruneian Empire. In Granada, where working-class neighborhoods were hit with artillery and right-wing squads were given free rein to kill government sympathizers, at least 2,000 people were murdered.  However, the kidnapping and murder of Sotelo transformed the "limping conspiracy" into a revolt that could trigger a civil war. , On 12 July 1936, Falangists in Madrid killed police officer Lieutenant José Castillo of the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard). His novel L'Espoir and the film version he produced and directed (Espoir: Sierra de Teruel) were a great help for the Republican cause in France. , The Spanish Republican Army had just 18 tanks of a sufficiently modern design, and the Nationalists took control of 10.  Julius Ruiz contends that, "Although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone, with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain". , Authors of recent studies suggest that given Nationalist and Republican spendings were comparable, earlier theory pointing to Republican mismanagement of resources is no longer tenable.  Historian Michael Seidman stated that the Nationalists killed approximately 130,000 people and the Republicans approximately 50,000 people. The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Zaragoza, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, and Seville. The Republican government attempted to sue for peace in May, but Franco demanded unconditional surrender, and the war raged on. Yale University Press, 2008, pp.110–111, Salvadó, Francisco J. Romero. Seidman argues that severe terror, combined with control of the food supply, explains the general lack of guerilla warfare in the Nationalist rear. highest considered estimate, 150,000 in combat and 140,000 executed, Moa, Pio (2015). Sánchez, José María. , PSOE's left wing socialists started to take action. A similar Republican attack, the Huesca Offensive, failed similarly. Franco established a dictatorship in which all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime. " Acting in concert, regular and irregular allied forces prevented Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces. In his capacity as consul in Paris, Chilean poet and politician Pablo Neruda organised the immigration to Chile of 2,200 Republican exiles in France using the ship SS Winnipeg. Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , Joan Miró created El Segador (The Reaper), formally titled El campesino catalán en rebeldía (Catalan peasant in revolt), which spans some 18 feet by 12 feet and depicted a peasant brandishing a sickle in the air, to which Miró commented that "The sickle is not a communist symbol.  The Nationalists won the war, which ended in early 1939, and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. Under Roman rule, Hispania contributed, like the rest of empire, to the Roman military, providing both legionaries, and auxiliary forces, in particular alae cavalry. Conversely, if the coup had risen everywhere in Spain on the 18th rather than be delayed, it could have triumphed by the 22nd. Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 35.  The major goal was to put an end to anarchical disorder.  Right-wing politicians opposed any aid and attacked the Blum government.
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