He believed all other heavenly bodies moved in complicated patterns around the Earth. GMES In-Situ Coordination (GISC) was a FP7 funded initiative, lasted for three years (January 2010 – December 2012) and was coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA). The idea for a global and continuous European earth observation system was developed under the name of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) which was later re-branded into Copernicus after the EU became directly involved in financing and development. The Sentinel-1 spacecraft cover applications such as observing sea ice zones and the arctic environment, surveillance of marine environment, monitoring land surface motion risks, and mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. These comprise the existing and planned ESA and EUMETSAT missions as well as the larger and important planned national missions, which will be operational in the early phase of GMES and are committed to contribute to GMES services. The goal of the CTDA mission is : (i) to respond to the information request, (ii) to task assets and ensure that requested products are planned, and (iii) to provide the location of archived data corresponding to the user requests. 2) The licenses for the Sentinel data are free of charge. The first launch of Sentinel-3 is planned for 2013. • GMES Security Coordination Center hosts the CTDA component which processes requests converting them to tasking/ planning request to elements within the system of systems. Sentinel-1 will be flown in a dawn-dusk sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of ~700 km with an exact repeat orbit of 12 days in support of multi-pass interferometry. "Generic" online access is subject to a user registration process and to the acceptation of generic terms and conditions. • GMES Climate Service: aims to support the European Union and Member States in formulating their strategies and policies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. • GMES Atmosphere Monitoring Service: aims to provide data records, nowcasts and forecasts of global atmospheric chemistry and constituents essential for monitoring climate, air quality, solar and UV radiation. Copernicus is the European Union's Earth observation programme coordinated and managed by the European Commission in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA), the EU Member States and EU Agencies. 1) “Global Monitoring for Environment and Security,” EC/ESA team, Final Report for the GMES Initial Period (2001-2003), Feb. 10, 2004, 2) “Copernicus: new name for European Earth Observation Programme,” European Commission Press Release, Dec. 12, 2012, URL: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12-1345_en.htm, 3) V. Liebig, J. Aschbacher, S. Briggs, G. Kohlhammer, R. Zobl, “GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security: The Second European Flagship in Space,” ESA Bulletin, No. • Environmental stress (environmental issues of a regional nature). The SLSTR has a spatial resolution in the visible bands of 500 m. - SRAL (SAR Radar Altimeter), a dual-band (C+Ku) altimeter operating in conventional radar-altimeter mode as on Poseidon-3 (Jason-2), and in advanced SAR mode (burst mode) over sea ice and coastal regions (data so far provided by RA-2 on Envisat). LANDSAT, GOSAT, RADARSAT-2) can also be used by Copernicus. In the words of Antonio Tajani: “By changing the name from GMES to Copernicus, we are paying homage to a great European scientist and observer: Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). Daily monitoring of ice-infested areas along the major transport routes. Le Traon, I. Robinson, K. Nittis, M. J. The overall GMES architecture comprises four major elements: services, space observations, in situ observations, and data integration and information management. Providing accurate, timely and easily accessible information to, among other things, improve the management of the environment, understand and mitigate the effects of climate change, and ensure civil security.. Observation cycles of subsidence measurements over all major urban areas and surveillance of transport infrastructure (e.g. A single Sentinel MCS (Mission Control System) will allow monitoring and control of all spacecraft, while commonalities across unit models will be applied for the Sentinel spacecraft simulators development. 20-26, 5) “A European Approach to Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES): Towards Meeting User Needs,” ESA/PB-EO (2001) 56, Rev. maritime surveillance, border control). In-situ data are all data from sources other than Earth observation satellites. 1) In principle, anybody can access acquired Sentinel data; in particular, no difference is made between public, commercial and scientific use and in between European or non-European users (registration is required). ESA’s approach is to minimize the cases for which a priority scheme is needed, through the maximization of systematic acquisition, of systematic processing and of systematic data availability. A general cooperative EC-ESA agreement on the GMES initiative functions and services was signed on Oct. 27, 2005. The purpose of interactive operations may be detection, monitoring or characterization. They contribute directly to the monitoring of climate change. The goal of the GMES Partners Board is to assist the Commission in the overall coordination of GMES. , Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service, Copernicus Service for Security Applications, Copernicus Climate Change Monitoring Service, Global Earth Observation System of Systems, "Regulation (EU) No 377/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme and repealing Regulation (EU) No 911/2010", "ESA, Earth observation: first Copernicus satellite Sentinel 1A", "Earth-Observation Satellite and Einstein-Challenging Physics Experiment Launch Into Space", "Regulation (EU) No 911/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the European Earth monitoring programme (GMES) and its initial operations (2011 to 2013)", "Interim Evaluation of the European Earth Monitoring Programme (GMES) and its initial Operations (2011-2013) - Final Report", "Copernicus operations secured until 2021", "ESA, European Commission Finalize Copernicus Budget", "Arianespace boosts Sentinel-1A Earth observation satellite into orbit", "Earth Observation Satellite Sentinel-2A Ready to Launch", "ESA books Eurockot Launch for Sentinel-5p Satellite", "SpaceX, ULA win NASA contracts to launch Earth observation satellites", "Earth science mission named after former NASA official", https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/fy2021_congressional_justification.pdf, "Thales Alenia Space proposals for the Copernicus project selected by European Space Agency", "Challenges and Future Perspectives of Multi-/Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Crop Water-Stress Detection: A Review", "ESA declares end of mission for Envisat", "@OpenStreetMapIt @Ale_Zena_IT Indeed, last OSM shapefile used in our maps production is from 11am today.
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